2015 Flue-Cured Tobacco Survey: Plant Disease Survey Data

— Written By

In this post, we continue to provide results from our annual surveys of county agents about flue-cured tobacco production practices with a focus on disease management. For more information about how these surveys were conducted, see our post on survey methods and response. For information about the insect pest control portion of these surveys, see our post on entomology survey data.

Greenhouse Diseases

In general, any given greenhouse plant disease resulted in an average loss of less than 6%. Rhizoctionia, Pythium, and black root rot were the most common greenhouse diseases.

Table 1: Average percent loss due to disease in greenhouse.

Disease Average Percent Loss Due to Disease 
2013 2014 2015
Rhizoctonia Damping-Off or Stem Rot 1.9 % 5.6 % 2.4 %
Pythium Root Rot 1.0 % 5.0 % 3.7 %
Collar Rot (Sclerotinia) 1.6 % 2.7 % 2.3 %
Target Spot 0.2 % 0.6 % 0.9 %
Blue Mold 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 %
Tobacco Mosaic Virus 0.0 % 0.1 % 0.1 %
Bacterial Soft Rot 0.2 % 1.4 % 0.3 %
Botrytis 0.1 % 0.1 % 0.3 %
Black Root Rot 0.0 % 5.8 % 0.9 %
Acres Responding to Question 85,682 90,919 112,038

Greenhouse Pesticide Applications

Table 2: Fungicide and bactericide applications in the greenhouse.

Fungicide/Bactericide Acres Responding to Question Average Percentage of Greenhouses Treated Average Number of Applications
2013 2014 2015 2013 2014 2015 2013 2014 2015
No Chemical Treatment 85,682 87,119 103,122 10.5 % 1.2 % 3.3 %
Terramaster 85,682 87,099 97,292 21.4 % 28.0 % 29.9 % 0.8 1.1 1.1
Dithane 85,682 80,695 91,522 11.1 % 4.6 % 9.4 % 0.9 0.7 1.0
Mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) 85,682 87,099 94,022 13.8 % 36.4 % 30.4 % 0.5 1.0 0.8
Streptomycin/Agromycin 85,682 83,299 68,792 1.3 % 7.1 % 1.9 % 0.4 0.7 0.8
Actigard 85,682 80,695 64,892 0.9 % 4.3 % 3.2 %
Aliette 85,682 80,695 61,397 0.0 % 0.1 % 0.0 %
Quadris 85,682 83,299 87,792 5.8 % 11.2 % 8.3 %

Tray Sanitation

Washing with water and fumigating was the most common form of tray sanitation practiced. In the past two years, there has been an increase in the use of steam sanitation.

Table 3: Tobacco float tray sanitizing practices.

Tray Sanitizing Method Acres Responding to Question Average Percentage of Trays Cleaned by Method
2013 2014 2015 2016 2014 2015
Wash with water, no fumigation 85,682 73,284 91,800 3.5 % 6.2 % 6.7 %
Wash with bleach, no fumigation 85,682 83,299 99,792 9.2 % 11.0 % 13.3 %
Wash with detergent, no fumigation 85,682 73,284 92,292 1.7 % 2.6 % 8.9 %
Wash with water and fumigate 85,682 72,584 95,570 47.5 % 34.4 % 31.2 %
Wash with bleach or detergent and fumigate 85,682 83,299 93,892 19.2 % 22.4 % 12.5 %
Use disposable trays 85,682 83,299 84,170 0.3 % 0.7 % 8.8 %
Steam 85,682 87,099 105,292 9.3 % 24.5 % 24.4 %
None/other 85,682 60,621 71,570 7.2 % 0.4 % 0.0 %

Field Diseases

Black shank, Granville Wilt, Target Spot, and Tomato Spotted Wilt were the diseases that caused the most losses. For more information about field diseases, visit our disease management page.

Table 4: Losses from field diseases.

Disease Average Percentage of Value Lost
2013 2014 2015
Angular Leafspot 0.04 % 0.11 % 0.02 %
Bacterial Soft Rot 0.01 % 0.00 % 0.10 %
Barn Rot 0.23 % 0.34 % 0.61 %
Black Shank 2.24 % 5.76 % 6.22 %
Blue Mold 0.00 % 0.00 % 0.00 %
Botrytis 0.00 % 0.00 % 0.00 %
Brown Spot 0.00 % 0.71 % 0.14 %
Etch 0.00 % 0.00 % 0.00 %
Fusarium Wilt 0.21 % 0.16 % 0.04 %
Granville Wilt 1.51 % 4.04 % 5.42 %
Hollow Stalk 0.31 % 0.25 % 0.37 %
Misc. Root Disease 0.00 % 0.06 % 0.00 %
Miscellaneous Leaf 0.02 % 0.26 % 0.00 %
Mosaic 0.37 % 0.24 % 0.11 %
Other Nematodes 0.00 % 0.18 % 0.00 %
Pythium Root/Stalk Rot 0.12 % 0.15 % 0.68 %
Ringspot 0.00 % 0.00 % 0.00 %
Root-Knot Nematodes 0.27 % 0.73 % 1.70 %
Target Spot 6.95 % 2.77 % 0.97 %
Tomato Spotted Wilt 2.58 % 1.79 % 0.59 %
Vein-Banding (PVY) 0.00 % 0.00 % 0.02 %
Weather Fleck 0.22 % 0.08 % 0.28 %
Acres Responding 85,682 88,719 64,692

Field Pesticide Applications

Table 5: Soil fungicide applications.

Fungicide Number of Acres Responding to Question Average Percentage of Acres Treated
2013 2014 2015 2013 2014 2015
None 85,682 85,069 64,692 7.2 % 14.3 % 17.6 %
Mefenoxam alone (Ridomil Gold or Ultra Flourish)** 85,682 72,406 64,692 19.6 % 27.2 % 24.5 %
Telone C-17 85,682 81,077 57,562 11.5 % 29.7 % 24.9 %
Telone C-17 + Mefenoxam 85,682 61,789 46,919 15.0 % 13.8 % 12.4 %
Chlor-O-Pic 100 85,682 85,069 62,280 19.1 % 23.4 % 24.1 %
Chlor-O-Pic 100 + Mefenoxam 85,682 65,781 54,049 13.6 % 10.5 % 17.9 %
Telone II 85,682 54,662 54,049 7.4 % 1.7 % 1.5 %
Telone II + Mefenoxam 85,682 55,789 44,317 2.5 % 2.3 % 1.0 %
Temik (15+lbs Alone with other insecticides) 85,682 45,774 44,317 0 0 0
Temik (15+ lbs + Mefenoxam) 85,682 45,774 44,317 0 0 0
Presidio* 62,280 21.0 %
Presidio* + Mefenoxam 60,549 11.4 %

*Note: Presidio was not available for use in tobacco until 2015.

**Average number of applications per season: 0.67, 1.1, and 1.4 in 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively.

Table 6: Foliar fungicide applications.

Fungicide Acres Responding to Question Average Percentage of Acres Treated Average Number of Applications
2013 2014 2015 2013 2014 2015 2013 2014 2015
Acrobat 50WP 85,682 62,462 62,462 3.3 % 0.5 % 0.7 % 0.1 0.1 0.1
Actigard 85,682 61,562 61,562 5.9 % 6.5 % 0.5 % 0.1 0.3 0
Dithane DF 85,682 61,162 61,162 0.0 % 4.1 % 0.2 % 0 0.3 0
Forum 85,682 53,574 53,574 0.0 % 0.2 % 0.2 % 0 0.1 0
Aliette 85,682 53,574 53,574 0.0 % 0.2 % 0.2 % 0 0.1 0
Quadris 85,682 85,069 85,069 55.1 % 60.4 % 46.5 % 1.2 1.6 1