Transplant Production – Greenhouse Fertilization
Fertilizer salts injury is the most common nutritional problem in float systems. Fertilizers supply nutrients in the form of salts. When fertilizer is added to the waterbed, these salts dissolve in the water. Then the nutrients move into the growing medium as water is absorbed from the waterbed.
Electrical conductivity is a commonly used indicator of fertilizer salts levels in media and water. Pocket-sized conductivity meters are available for a reasonable price from many farm supply dealerships. When properly calibrated, these meters are very helpful in a salts-monitoring program for float water and growing media.
Salts should be monitored in the growing medium every 24 to 48 hours from seedling emergence until the plant roots grow into the waterbed. Collect a sample of the medium from the upper ½-inch of the cell from several trays, then add twice as much distilled water as growing medium on a volume basis (a 2:1 water-to-growing-medium dilution). Shake or stir the sample and wait 2 to 3 minutes before measuring the conductivity. Normal levels range from 500 to 1,000 microseimens (0.5 to 1 millimhos). Readings of 1,000 to 1,500 microseimens (1 to 1.5 millimhos) are moderately high, and readings above 1,500 microseimens are very high. Apply water from overhead to leach and dilute salts when: (1) conductivity readings are above 1,000 microseimens and plants are pale or stop growing; or (2) conductivity readings are 1,500 microseimens or above.
Growers with fertilizer injection systems have been successful in using a constant application rate of 125 parts per million (ppm) nitrogen from 20-10-20, 16-5-16, or similar ratio fertilizers. For noninjected systems, fertilizer can be added to the water in two steps. Research has shown that excellent transplants can be obtained from an initial application of fertilizer to supply 100 to 150 ppm nitrogen within 7 days after seeding plus a second application to supply 100 ppm nitrogen 4 weeks later. Use a complete fertilizer (with 2-1-2 or 3-1-3 ratio) for the first application. The same fertilizer or ammonium nitrate can be used for the second application. Higher application rates cause tender, succulent seedlings that are more susceptible to diseases. Also, high application rates promote fertilizer salts injury to seedlings as noted above. If high fertilizer salts levels are detected during the first 4 weeks after seeding (>1,000 microseimens in the medium from the upper ½-inch of the cell), apply water uniformly from over-top to reduce fertilizer salts levels.
Research at Clemson University has shown the need to limit phosphorus concentrations to 35 to 50 ppm in the waterbed. Applying excess phosphorus causes spindly transplants and leaves more phosphorus in the waterbed for disposal after transplant production. Therefore, 20-10-20 and 20-9-20 are better choices than 20-20-20 fertilizer. Other fertilizers, such as 16-5-16, are also good choices because very little phosphorus is left in the float water after the transplants are taken to the field.